Rbse Solutions Class 11 English (Hornbill) Chapter 7

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English (Hornbill) Chapter 7 The Adventure (updated)

Class11
SubjectEnglish
BookHornbill
Chapter Number7
Chapter NameThe Adventure

Page No 60:

Question 1:

Notice these expressions in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.

  • blow-by-blow account
  • morale booster
  • relegated to
  • political acumen
  • de facto
  • astute
  • doctored accounts
  • gave vent to

ANSWER:

  • blow-by-blow account: detailed account. In the text “The Adventure” this expression occurs in the context of Gangadharpant trying to understand the outcome of the Battle of Panipat by reading a book on the topic.
  • morale booster: anything that serves to increase morale or confidence. The expression occurs in the text ‘Adventure’ where it is told that the Marathas emerged victorious in the Battle of Panipat which increased their morale or confidence in establishing their supremacy all over the country.
  • Relegated to: assigned to a lower rank or position. In the text it is said how Dadasaheb, a maratha Chieftain was assigned to a lower rank after the Battle of Panipat.
  • political acumen: political shrewedness with keen insight. In the text ‘The Adventure’ the expression is used to convey how Madhavrao and Vishwasrao because of their shrewedness could expand their influence all over India.
  • de facto: existing in fact whether with lawful authority or not. In the text ‘Adventure’ the Peshwas are regarded as de facto rulers as they kept the Mughal regime alive in Delhi.
  • astute: marked by practical hardheaded intelligence. In the text “The Adventure” this word is used to convey that the Peshwas were very intelligent to recognise the importance of technological age dawning in Europe.
  • doctored accounts: manipulation of accounts. This expression conveys that the Bakhars were not providing historical facts but manipulated account of history.
  • give vent to: to express one’s feelings and ideas. Professor Gaitonde expressed his ideas in the public lecture on the Battle of Panipat.

Page No 69:

Question 1:

Tick the statements that are true.

1. The story is an account of real events.

2. The story hinges on a particular historical event.

3.Rajendra Desphande was a historical event.

4. The places mentioned in the story are all imaginary.

5. The story tries to relate history to Science.

ANSWER:

1.The story is an account of real events. (True)

2.The story hinges on a particular historical event. (True)

3. Rajendra Deshpande was a historian. (True)

4. The places mentioned in the story are all imaginary. (False)

5. The Story tries to relate history to Science. (True)

Page No 69:

Question 2(3):

Gangadharpant could not help comparing the country he knew with what he was witnessing around him.

ANSWER:

The given statement is in the text The Adventure by Jayant Vishnu Narlikar. The statement is in the context of Gangadharpant experiencing a different historical view of India after the Battle of Panipat. According to this perspective of Indian history, the Marathas emerged victorious in the said battle and extended influence over the entire country till the end of the twentieth century. They were gradually replaced by democratically elected bodies. The country Gangadharpant was witnessing around him had always been strong and self respecting. He could not help comparing it with the country that he knew. The two versions of historical reality of India indeed was perplexing to him and he started comparing the two in order to understand the phenomenon. This was later explained by Rajendra in the light of catastrophic theory, according to which, there could be alternative realities existing side by side out of which any one of the alternatives is revealed to an observer. This is what happened with Gangadharpant in that he was witnessing an altogether different version of Indian history. This induced him to compare the two versions of India as mentioned in the History text books and another revealed to him.

Page No 69:

Question 2(2):

“You have passed through a fantastic experience: or more correctly, a catastrophic experience.”

ANSWER:

This statement was made by Rajendra to Prof. Gaitonde in the text The Adventure by Jayant Vishnu Narlikar. Rajendra made this statement in the context of Prof. Gaitonde experiencing a different version of the outcome of the Battle of Panipat. Prof Gaitonde was a historian and he was invited in a seminar to speak on the Battle of Panipat. He was to make a point that if in the battle of Panipat the Marathas emerged victorious then what would have happened. Interestingly, Prof. Gaitonde happened to experience the very hypothesis as reality. He entered a different level of consciousness and was witnessing events like the Battle of Panipat in an altogether different version. In the History books, the Marathas are mentioned as being loser in the battle but in his experience the Marathas emerged victorious. Prof. Gaitonde was unable to understand this phenomenon. It is in this context, Rajendra tried to offer a scientific explanation to rationalise Prof. Gaitonde’s experience. He meant to say that what Prof. Gaitonde experienced was not imaginative or fantastic but was also real. He tried to explain this in the light of the catastrophic theory. According to this theory, there can be many alternative realities simultaneously existing. An observer sees only one of the alternatives. By applying this theory, Rajendra tried to explain the outcome of the Battle of Panipat as revealed to Prof. Gaitonde. The catastrophic theory has been developed by observing the outcome of experiments on small systems like atom and their constituent particles. The behaviour of these systems cannot be predicted definitely even if all the physical laws governing those systems are known.

Page No 69:

Question 2(1):

“You neither travelled to the past nor the future. You were in the present experiencing a different world.”

ANSWER:

The statement is from the text The Adventure written by Jayant Vishnu Narlikar. These words were said by Rajendra to Professor Gaitonde in the context of his entering into a different state of consciousness, which revealed a different version of the outcome of the Battle of Panipat. According to this version as revealed to Prof. Gaitonde, the Marathas emerged victorious in the battle, which is contrary to the facts as presented in the History books. The statement reveals that one can experience an altogether different world without travelling to the past or the future. Prof. Gaitonde was witnessing a different set of events remaining in the present. It was not a matter of fantasy or imagination on the part of Prof. Gaitonde but a different reality as revealed to him. Such alternative realities occur due to bifurcation leading to different course of events simultaneously. In the present context, the bifurcation took place in the Battle of Panipat so that in one course of event the Marathas emerged victorious and in another they lost the battle. The History books mention that the Marathas lost the battle of Panipat, which is also true and the other version as revealed to Prof. Gaitonde is also true.

Page No 70:

Question 1(i):

A single event may change the course of the history of a nation.

ANSWER:

In favour of the motionAgainst the motion
A single event may change the course of the history of a nation. The battle of Panipat for example is said to be the turning point in the history of India. In the Battle of Panipat, the Marathas gave in to the forces of Ahmed Shah Abdali. After this event the history of India took another turn. Gradually, the country was was overtaken by the foreign forces. In the story The Adventure it is mentioned how in the beginning Prof. Gaitonde was preparing a speech on what course the history would have taken if the Marathas had won the Battle of Panipat. This shows the importance of a single event in the history of a nation.The motion that A single event may change the course of the history of a nation is a matter of perspective only. It is a relative truth. If we apply the catastrophic theory in understanding history then we will find that there may be alternative outcomes of a single event so that we cannot proclaim that any one course of event is the reality. Since there may be alternative courses of history so debating on a single course is not fruitful. In the story the Adventure due to catastrophic phenomenon the Battle of Panipat is revealed in a different version to Prof Gaitonde. According to this version, the Marathas emerged victorious in the Battle of Panipat. After the event the Marathas extended influence over the entire country. India never fell to the alien forces. So, to argue that a single course of event may change the course of history is not tenable. There may be alternative effects following an event.

Page No 70:

Question 1(ii):

Reality is what is directly experienced through the senses.

ANSWER:

In favour of the motionAgainst the motion
Our senses , that is the senses of touch, sight, taste and hearing and smell provide us facts about the world we live in. Knowledge from experience come through these senses. The reality is what we directly experience through these senses. No other reality exists which is not revealed to the senses.Reality is not what is directly revealed to the senses. We cannot experience so many entities like atoms and molecules but these are real. We cannot even predict the behaviour of these entities accurately. This point is mooted by Rajendra in the story Adventure when he points to the discoveries made by the physicists regarding the behaviour of the atoms. We can predict the position of a bullet fired in a particular direction from a gun but we cannot predict the position of a an electron fired from a source. This proves that reality is not what is directly revealed to the senses, there can be alternative realities existing side by side.

Page No 70:

Question 1(iii:

The methods of inquiry of history,science and philosophy are similar.

ANSWER:

In favour of the motionAgainst the motion
The methods of inquiry of History, Science and Philosophy are similar. In the story The Adventureone can find the perspectives of History, Philosophy and Science converging towards a focal point.History employs the methods of observation, analysis and rationalism in understanding the course of past events. Science is based on observation, experimentation and analysis. Rationalism is the most fundamental principle that Science follows. Philosophy is thoroughly critical in methodology.Philosophy examines everything including the assumptions and methodology of Science and other disciplines like History. In the story The Adventure History, Science and Philosophy converge. Prof. Gaitonde experienced an altogether different version of the out come of the Battle of Panipat. Contrary to the version as provided in History text books,the Marathas emerged as victorious in this battle. Prof. Gaitonde tried to understand this rationally but he failed to get any clue. In this context, Rajendra intervened to explain this phenomenon in the light of the Catastrophic theory which is being employed by Physicists in understanding the behaviour of atoms. Here we find Science and History converging. The similar perspective is seen in Philosophy that truth is relative and not absolute. In fact, the philosophical movement of post Modernism is based on this.In other words, the methods of inquiry of History, Science and Philosophy are similar.It is a misnomer that the methods of inquiry of History,Science and Philosophy are similar.The similarity is at superficial level and not at the core. In the story The Adventure Rajendra tried torationalise the experience of Prof Gaitonde by applying the Catastrophic theory. But this explanationis not convincing though it convinced the professor. Catastrophic theory can best explain phenomenon of the physical world but History deals with behavioural world. It is concerned with the behaviour of society and individuals. The methods of inquiry will also vary accordingly.The method of inquiry of Philosophy is speculative. Philosophy even questions rationalism. Philosophy is highly critical of the methods of Science and History. In other words, the methods of History, Science and Philosophy are not similar. The story The Adventure by Jayant Vishnu Narlikar is, in fact, a science fiction which is trying to show the convergence of Science History and Philosophy. In reality the three disciplines, namely, Science, History and Philosophy have to employ different methodology of inquiry vis-a-vis the subject matter.

Page No 70:

Question 1:

Tick the item that is closest in meaning to the following phrases.

1. to take issue with

(i) to accept

(ii) to discuss

(iii) to disagree

(iv) to add

2. to give vent to

(i) to express

(ii) to emphasise

(iii) to suppress

(iv) to dismiss

3. to stand on one’s feet

(i) to be physically strong

(ii) to be independent

(iii) to stand erect

(iv) to be successful

4. to be wound up

(i) to become active

(ii) to stop operating

(iii) to be transformed

(iv) to be destroyed

5. to meet one’s match

(i) to meet a partner who has similar tastes

(ii) to meet an opponent

(iii) to meet someone who is equally able as oneself

(iv) to meet defeat

ANSWER:

1. (ii) to discuss

2. (i) to express

3. (ii) To be independent.

4. (ii) To stop operating

5. (iii) To meet someone who is equally able as oneself.

Page No 70:

Question 2(ii):

Why do you think Professor Gaitonde decided never to preside over meetings again?

ANSWER:

Professor Gaitonde was experiencing a different version of the Battle of Panipat. According to this version, the Marathas emerged victorious in the Battle and started extending influence over the entire country. His mind was actually witnessing a different version of the historical reality. Interestingly, he was also witnessing an event that was not conforming to the conventions. The event was a lecture session on the outcomes of the Battle of Panipat. In this lecture session Prof. Gaitonde observed that the chair of the President was vacant. This again was contrary to the conventions. Prof. Gaitonde rushed to occupy the chair and started explaining the need of a President in a lecture session like this. The public got angry on this point and started throwing objects on him. He had a harrowing experience. This led him to decide not to preside over meetings again.

Page No 70:

Question 2(5):

“You need some interaction to cause a transition.”

ANSWER:

The statement is made by Rajendra in the text The Adventure by Jayant Vishnu Narlikar. Rajendra offered a scientific explanation in the light of catastrophic theory to rationalise the fantastic experience undergone by Prof. Gaitonde regarding the course of India’s history after the Battle of Panipat. As per the History text books, the Marathas lost the Battle of Panipat after which India gradually fell to the foreign forces. Contrary to this fact, Prof. Gaitonde witnessed that the Marathas emerged victorious in the Battle of Panipat and extended influence all over the country. These two versions of history seemed perplexing to Prof. Gaitonde. Rajendra’s explanation convinced Prof. Gaitonde but he was unable to understand how his consciousness level changed so that he could experience a catastrophic event in history. In this context, Rajendra tried to explain that when Prof. Gaitonde was hit by a truck he was at that time thinking about the Battle of Panipat. The neurons in his brain acted as trigger to change his consciouness level leading to his experience of another version of the course of history after the Battle of Panipat.

Page No 70:

Question 2(4):

“The lack of determinism in quantum theory!”

ANSWER:

The statement occurs in the text Adventure by jayant Vishnu Narlikar. This statement is made by Prof. Gaitonde in response to the explanation of Catastrophic theory as explained by Rajendra. Rajendra was trying to rationalise the experiences of Prof. Gaitonde in which he witnessed an altogether new version of Indian History. According to the revelations made to Gaitonde, the Marathas emerged as victorious in the Battle of Panipat and extended influence over the entire country making India self reliant in all respect. The Maratha Peshwas were gradually replaced by democratically elected bodies. Rajendra tried to explain this varied version by applying the catastrophic theory. The catastrophic theory postulates that there can be many alternative realities existing simultaneously. This theory has been developed on the basis of experiments on small systems like atom and their constituent particles. The physicists have observed that the behaviour of these systems cannot be predicted definitevely even if all the physical laws governing those systems are known. That means there is lack of determinism. This theory has been developed in Quantum physics and wonderfully explains phenomenon like that experienced by Prof. Gaitonde was convinced by the explanation offered by Rajendra which could resolve the perplexities as presented before him in the face of two different versions of Indian history.

Page No 71:

Question 2.4(ii):

You will find the historian and the scientist in the archaeology and natural science sections of the museum respectively.

ANSWER:

You will find the historian and the scientist in the archaeology and natural sections of the museum respectively means one will find the historian and the scientist in the archaeology and natural sections of the museum individually.

Page No 71:

Question 2.4(i):

The librarian spoke respectfully to the learned scholar.

ANSWER:

The librarian spoke respectfully to the learned scholar means the librarian spoke with full of respect to the learned scholar.

Page No 71:

Question 2.3(ii):

The team played two matches successively.

ANSWER:

The team played two matches successively means the team played two matches one after another, i.e., in successive order.

Page No 71:

Question 2.3(i):

The team played the two matches successfully.

ANSWER:

The team played two matches successfully means the team played two matches with success.

Page No 71:

Question 2.2(ii):

Green stripes could be used or alternatively black ones.

ANSWER:

Green stripes could be used or alternatively black ones means either green stripes could be used or black ones, i.e., altering a choice.

Page No 71:

Question 2.2(i):

Green and black stripes were used alternately.

ANSWER:

Green and black stripes were used alternately means green and black stripes were used reciprocally.

Page No 71:

Question 2.1(ii):

He was visually impaired.

ANSWER:

He was visually impaired means the concerned person was impaired with respect to sight.

Page No 71:

Question 2.1(i):

He was visibly moved.

ANSWER:

He was visibly moved means the concerned person was perceptibly moved.

The Adventure NCERT Text Book Questions and Answers

The Adventure Understanding the text

I. Tick the statements that are true :
1. The story ……………. is an account of real events. ( )
2. The story ………………. hinges on a particular historical event ( )
3. Rajendra Deshpande was …………….. a historian. ( )
4. The places mentioned in ……………. the story are all imaginary. ( )
5. The story …………. tries to relate history to science. ( )
Answer:
1. (✗) 2. (✗) 3. (✗) 4. (✗) 5. (✓)

II. Briefly explain the following statements from the text:

1. “You neither travelled to the past nor the future. You were in the present experiencing a different world.”
2. ‘You have passed through a fantastic experience : or more correctly, a cata¬strophic experience.”
3. Gangadharpant could not help comparing the country he knew with what he was witnessing around him.
4. “The lack of determinism in quantum theory!”
5. ‘You need some interaction to cause a transition.”
Answer:
1. The statement was made by Rajendra Deshpande for Professor Gangadharpant Gaitonde. The Professor went to Mumbai where he was interrupted rudely during his presidential speech. He was quite unaware of the fact where he spent two days afterwards. At this Rajendra tried to rationalise his experience on the basis of scientific theories.

2. The statement was made by Rajendra Deshpande to and for Professor Gangadhar Gaitonde. The latter had been absent for two days from Pune. He had gone to Bombay. He also produced an evidence of his visit to Bombay. He also talked about his experience there. But he actually didn’t know where he spent his time after his collision, while he was absent from Pune. At this Rajendra tried to co-relate his typical experience with Catastrophe theory calling his experience a catastrophic experience.

3. Gangadharpant seemed to be known to Bombay pre-British Raj. Then possibly he was posted at Pune. But as he came to Bombay he found many new buildings and new sets of shops just like the ones in Britain. He was naturally surprised and couldn’t help comparing it.

4. Gangadharpant felt moving between two different worlds. He was surprised how that occur could. He also failed to understand why history took a different turn in volume five, from that what was reality. At this his friend, Rajendra Despande tried to explain.

He told that such incidents could take place due to lack of determinism in quantum theory. As Alxendor could have won the battle  and Marathas really won the battle proving the same theory. According to this theory, the electrons don’t take the same trajectory path, shot from the same neucleus like the planets. They take different routes. Same happened in the war of Waterloo and the war of Panipat

5. Professor Gaitonde failed to understand where he spent the time while returning . to Pune. His memory was blank as to recollect his experience after his collision till his return to Pune. Moreover he also failed to understand how a person could move between two totally different worlds at a time.

At this Rajendra explained that it happens due to transition. On being asked he told that transition could take place due to interaction. Suppose a person is interacting about some incident, he might undergo the transition phase and the catastrophic theory.

The Adventure Talking about the text

Question 1.
Discuss the following statements in groups of two pairs, each pair in a group taking opposite points of view :

(i) A single event may change the course of the history of a nation.
(ii) Reality is what is directly experienced through the senses.
(iii) The methods of inquiry of history, science and philosophy are similar.
Answer:
(i) We can call history an epic of humanity. Historical events are not isolated phenomenon. History is one of the highest and richest social arts. It is rightly said that a single event may change the course of the history of a nation. India’s attaining independ¬ence from the tyranny of British rule is a single event of history. It was made possible by a long series of sacrifices made by our freedom fighters.

When finally India was declared independent on 15th August, 1947 it changed the course of history of a nation. Now India is the largest democracy in the whole world. Similarly a single event-Russian Revolution- Changed the entire course of the history of a nation. Thus we can say that a single event may change the course of the history of a nation.

(ii) Reality is the state of things as they actually exist. For instance if we touch fire with our hand, it will have a burning sensation. This is reality or an estabilished fact. But we come to know about this fact only when it is experienced through the senses.

When we go out in rain, we will get wet. This reality also is directly experienced through the senses. When we keep water in the refrigerator it gets cold. But how can we prove it is true. Either through touching it with our fingers or by drinking it. In most of the cases we can say that reality is what is directly experience through the senses. However a spiritual truth becomes a reality when it has been proved with the mental state of mind of most of the people.

(iii) Self-attempt.

Question 2.
(i) The story is called “The Adventure”. Compare it with the adventure described in “We’re Not Afraid to Die ….”
(ii) Why do you think Professor Gaitonde decided never to preside over meetings again ?
Answer:
(i) For self-attempt.

Question 3.
Professor Gangadharpant Gaitonde was a historian. He would attend public meetings and would address people awaring them about the important occurrences in history. He had also written history books. The audience was never same during his various addresses. Sometimes it was hostile. He was also greeted warmly in some of the meetings. ’
Once he went to Pune to find out some historical fact. Thereafter having his meal in the evening, as he was strolling, he found a meeting being assembled at Azad Maidan.

Instinctively he moved towards the platform and then to the unoccupied presidential chair as an iron plate is attracted towards the magnet. He started speaking on the mike in spite of public verbal protest. But the public was not in a mood to listen to the presidential introduction. He soon became the target of the shower of potatoes, eggs and other articles.

But that also didn’t deter him. Valiantly he cleaned that dirt and kept on speaking. Now the public grew so hostile that they physically pulled him. Next, he didn’t know what happened to him When he gained consciousness, he found himself lying on the ground.

Later, he met Rajendra Deshpande and tried to get what actually it was. Rajendra tried to rationalise it, which the former didn’t take and announced that he won’t address any public meeting in future as he was so rudely interrupted in his speech by the public at Azad Maidan. He also told that he had sent his letter of refusal regretting his denial to address at meeting in Panipat.

The Adventure Thinking About Language

1. In which language do you think Gangadharpant and Khan Sahib talked to each other ? Which language did Gangadharpant use to talk to the English receptionist ?
2. In which language do you think Bhausahebanchi Bakhar was written ?
3. There is mention of three communities in the story, the Marathas, the Mughals, the Anglo-Indians. Which language do you think they used within their communities and while speaking to the other groups ?
4. Do you think that the ruled always adopt the language of the rulers ?
Answer:
1. I think that Gangadharpant and Khan Sahib might have talked to each other in the then layman’s language. They both were well educated so they might have conversed in English in between. Khan Sahib was Muslim, so it was quite natural on his part that he could have used some Urdu words. But most prominently they might have conversed in English.But with the English receptionist, he must have talked in English language solely, as the former was not supposed to be well aware of Hindi or any other language.

2. ‘Bhausahebanchi Bakhar possibly was written in Marathi language.

3. I think the Marathas used Marathi language within their communities. The Mughals used Arabic language and Anglo-Indians used English language within their communities.

4. Yes, I think that the ruled generally adopt the language of the rulers.

The Adventure Working With Words

I. Tick the item that is closest in meaning to the following phrases :

Question 1.
………….. to take issue with :
(i) to accept
(ii) to discuss
(iii) to disagree
(iv) to add
Answer:
(ii) to discuss

Question 2.
………….. to give vent to
(i) to express
(ii) to emphasise
(iii) suppress
(iv) dismiss
Answer:
(i) to express

Question 3.
…………. to stand on one’s feet :
(i) to be physically strong
(ii) to be independent
(iii) to stand erect
(iv) to be successful
Answer:
(ii) to be independent

Question 4.
………….. to be wound up :
(i) to become active
(ii) to stop operating
(iii) to be transformed
(iv) to be destroyed
Answer:
(iv) to be destroyed

Question 5.
……….. to meet one’s match :
(i) to meet a partner who has similar tastes
(ii) to meet an opponent
(iii) to meet someone who is equally able as oneself
(iv) to meet defeat
Answer:
(i) to meet a partner who has similar tastes

II. Distinguish between the following pairs of sentences :

Question 1.
(i) He was visibly moved.
(ii) He was visually impaired.
Answer:
(i) He was apparently moved.
(ii) He had no vision/sight was vision-wise challenged.

Question 2.
(i) Green and black stripes were used alternately.
(ii) Green stripes could be used or alternatively black ones.
Answer:
(i) Green and black stripes were used in turns.
(ii) Green stripes could be used or as a substitute black ones could be used.

Question 3.
(i) The team played the two matches successfully.
(ii) The team played two matches successively.
Answer:
(i) The team played the two maches victoriously.
(ii) The team played two matches continuously/consecutively

Question 4.
(i) The librarian spoke respectfully to the learned scholar.
(ii) You will find the historian and the scientist in the archaeology and natural science sections of the museum respectively.
Answer:
(i) The librarian spoke with respect/honour to the learned scholar.
(ii) You will find the historian and the scientist in the archaeology and natural science sections of the museum respectfully.

The Adventure Noticing Form

The story deals with unreal and hypothetical conditions. Some of the sentences used to express this notion are given below :
1. If I fire a bullet from a gun in a given direction at a given speed, I know where it will be.at a later time.
2. If I knew the answer I would solve a great problem.
3. If he himself were dead in this world, what guarantee had he that his son would be alive.
4. What course would history have taken if the battle had gone the other way ?
Answer:
The students should note the use of conditional clauses carefully and apply them in their day-to-day activities.

The Adventure Things To Do

I. Read the following passage on the Catastrophe Theory downloaded from the internet.
Originated by the French mathematician Rene Thom, in the 1960s, catastrophe theory is a special branch of dynamical systems theory. It studies and classifies phenomena characterised by sudden shifts in behaviour arising from small changes in circumstances. Catastrophes are bifurcations between different equilibria, or fixed point attractors.

Due to their restricted nature, catastrophes can be classified based on how many control parameters are being simultaneously varied. For example, if there are two controls, then one finds the most common type, called a “cusp” catastrophe. If, however, there are more than five controls, there is no classification.Gatastrophe theory has been applied to a number of different phenomena, such as the stability of ships at sea and their capsizing, bridge collapse, and, with some less convincing success, the fight-or-flight behaviour of animals and prison riots.

II. Look up the internet or an encyclopedia for information on the following theories:
(i) Quantum theory
(ii) Theory of relativity
(iii) Big Bang theory
(iv) Theory of evolution
Answer:
(i) Quantum theory : The theory propagates that energy exists in units that can’t be divided. ‘Quantum’ simply means ‘electromagnetic energy’. It is related with physics.
(ii) Theory of relativity : This theory was given by Einstein. It propagates the that all the movement is relative and that time is a fourth dimensionrelated to space.
(iii) Big Bang theory : Edwin Hubble gave this theory which professes that the universe was collected at a centre then a great/huge/massive explosion with big bang occurred and heavenly bodies separated.
(iv) Theory of evolution : The theory was given by Darwin propagating the principle of the survival of the fittest. Those who modify themselves according to the changing environment survive, the rest die.

The Adventure Extra Questions and Answers

Read the passages given below and answer the questions thats follow :

Passage 1

Meanwhile, the racing fund of Professor Gaitonde had arrived at a plan of action in Bombay* Indeed, as a historian he’felt he should have thought of it sooner. He would go to a big library and brow-fee through history books. That was the surest way of finding out how the present state of affairs was reached.

He also planned eventually to return to Pune and have a long talk with Rajendra Deshpande, who would surely help him understand what had happened. That is, assuming that in this world there existed someone called Rajendra Deshpande ! The train stopped beyond the long tunnel. It was a small station called Sarhad. An Anglo-Indian in uniform went through the train checking permits. (Page 60)

Questions :
(t) Who was Professor Gaitonde and where did he hail from ?
(ii) What was his destination and what was his purpose ?
(iii) What did he feel his duty as a historian ?
(iv) Could you guess the period when the story might have been written ?
(v) Give the synonyms of the following :
(a) exist
(b) tunnel.
Answers :
(i) Professor Gaitonde was a historian and he hailed from Pune.
(ii) His destination presently was Bombay. He wanted to go there to the big library and browse through history books to find how the present state of affairs was reached.
(fit) As a historian, Professor Gaitonde felt it his duty that he should have thought long before to find out the reason of the changed state of matters.
(iv) The paragraph talks about ‘An Anglo-Indian’ entering the carriage to check the permits. Naturally he was Govt, officer. It occurred only during the British-rule.
(v) (a) existlive
(b) tunnela long narrow (generally) underground path/a long cave with outlet at another end also.

Passage 2

He thanked the girl politely and came out. It was characteristic of him jot to worry about where he would stay. His main concern was to make his way to the library of the Asiatic Society to solve the riddle of history. Grabbing a quick lunch at a restaurant, he made his way to the Town Hall. Yes, to his relief, the Town Hall was there, and it did house the library. He entered the reading room and asked for a list of history books including his own.

His five volumes duly arrived on his table. He started from the beginning. Volume one took the history up to the period of Ashoka, volume two up to Samudragupta, volume three up to Mohammad Ghori and volume four up to the death of Aurangzeb. Up to this period history was as he knew it. The change evidently had occurred in the last volume.Reading volume five from both ends inwards, Gangadharpant finally converged on the precise moment where history had taken a different turn. (Page 62)

Questions :
(i) Who is ‘he’ here ? Do you know who is the ‘girl’ he thanked ?
(ii) What was his main concern ?
(iii) Which characteristic of the subject being talked about here, is mentioned here ?
What does it show ?
(iv) Did he find what he wanted to ?
(v) Give synonyms of:
(a) concern
(b) converged.
Answers :
(i) ‘He’ here is Professor Gangadharpant Gaitonde. Yes. The ‘girl’ he thanked is the English receptionist at Forbes Building.
(ii) His main concern was to make his way to the library of Asiatic Society to solve the riddle of history.
(iii) Professor Gaitonde is the subject being talked about here. He never cared much about his lodging. That was his characteristic. It shows that instead of his personal physical comforts, he cared more about his worth.
(iv) Yes, he found what he wanted to. He had come there to solve a riddle of history.While reading fifth volume of the history hook, he got the clue/point which cleared the puzzle.
(v) (a) concern — worry.
(b) converged — moved towards a point from different directions and meet to form a large crowd.

Passage 3

Their victory in the battle was not only a great morale booster to the Marathas hut it also established their supremacy in northern India. The East India Company, which had been watching these developments from the sidelines, got the message and temporarily shelved its expansionist programme. For the Peshwas the immediate result was an increase in the influence of Bhausaheb and Vishwasrao who eventfully succeeded his father in 1780 AD. The trouble-maker, Dadasaheb, was relegated to the background and he eventually retired from state politics.

To its dismay, the East India Company met its match in the new Maratha ruler, Vishwasrao. He and his brother, Madhavrao, combined political acumen with valour and systematically expanded their influence all over India. The Company was reduced to pockets of influence near Bombay, Calcutta and Madras, just like its European rivals, the Portu guese and the French. (Page 63)

Questions :
(i) What was the effect of the battle ? What was its result ?
(ii) How did this change in situation affect the British /East India Company ?
(iii) What impact did it have on Dadasaheb ?
(iv) How did Vishwasrao act as a ruler ?
(v) Give the synonyms of:
(a) relegated
(b) acumen
Answers :
(i) The battle resulted in the victory of Marathas which finally boosted them morally. Consequently their supermacy in Northern India was established.
(ii) The East India Company had to temporarily shelves its expansionist programme after the establishment of Maratha power in Northern India. It also remained restricted to the pockets of near Bombay, Calcutta and Madras.
(iii) Dadasaheb was regarded troublemaker by the Marathas. So he was relegated to the background and finally he retired from state politics.
(iv) Vishwasrao alongwith his brother Madhavrao very systematically expanded their influence all over India. The East India Company remained restricted to the pockets of influence near Bombay, Calcutta and Madras.
(v) relegated : given less important place/rank
acumen : ability to understand and judge things quickly and clearly.

Passage 4

He found a guest house to stay in and had a frugal meal. He then set out for a stroll towards the Azad Maidan. In the maidan he found a throng moving towards a pandal. So, a lecture was to take place. Force of habit took Professor Gaitonde towards the pandal. The lecture was in progress, although people kept coming and going. But Professor Gaitonde was not looking at the audience.

He was staring at the platform as if mesmerised. There was a table and a chair but the latter was unoccupied. The presidential chair unoccupied! The sight stirred him to the depths. Like a piece of iron attracted to a magnet, he swiftly moved towards the chair. The speaker stopped in mid-sentence, too shocked to continue. But the audience soon found voice.

“Vacate the chair !”
“This lecture series has no chairperson…”
“Away from the platform, mister !”
“The chair is symbolic, don’t you know ?”

What nonsense! Whoever heard of a public lecture without a presiding dignitary ? Professor Gaitonde went to the mike and gave vent to his views. “Ladies and gentlemen, an unchaired lecture is like Shakespeare’s Hamlet without the Prince of Denmark. Let me tell you.” (Pages 64-65)

Questions :
(i) Where did he go for a stroll ? What did he find there ?
(ii) How did he feel after going there ?
(iii) What was the general reaction at his arHval ?
(iv) How did he try to explain- himself or his position ?
(v) Give the meaning of:
(a) mesmerised
(b) gave vent to
Answers :
(i) He went towards the Azad Maidan for a stroll. He found there a throng moving . towards a pandal.
(ii) He felt mesmerised looking at the platform. He found the presidential chair unoccupied. It stirred him to the depths. He felt attracted towards the chair as an iron rod is attracted to a magnet.
(iii) The speaker was too shocked (to see Gangadharpant moving towards the presidential chair) to continue. He stopped in mid-sentence. At this the audience also reacted aggressively and asked Professor Gaitonde to be away from the chair. They didn’t seem to be in mood of listening to the chairperson.
(iv) Professor Gaitonde had an experience of speaking at the public meetings. He went to the mike after seeing the chairperson’s seat unoccupied. He told that an unchaired lecture is like Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet’ without the Prince of Denmark.
(v) (a) mesmerised : spell bound/ having such a strong effect on you that you can’t give your attention to anything else.
(b) gave vent to : expressed.

Passage 5

“Don’t smile smugly. In case you think that it was just my mind playing tricks and my imagination running amok, look at this.” And, triumphantly, Professor Gaitonde produced his vital piece of evidence : a page tom out of a book. Rajendra read the text on the printed page and his face underwent a change. Gone was the smile and in its place came a grave expression. He was visibly moved.Gangadharpant pressed home his advantage. “I had inadvertently slipped the Bakhar in my pocket as I left the library. I discovered my error when I was paying for my meal. I had intended to return it the next morning.

But it seems that in the melee of Azad Maidan, the book was lost; only this tom-off page remained. And, luckily for me, the page contains vital evidence.” Rajendra again read the page. It described how Vishwasrao narrowly missed the bul¬let; and howr that event, taken as an omen by the Maratha army, turned the tide in their favour.“Now look at this.” Gangadharpant produced his own copy of Bhausahebanchi Bakhar, opened at the relevant page. The account ran thus :‘… And then Vishwasrao guided his horse to the melee where the elite troops were fighting, and he attacked them. And God expressed His displeasure. He was hit by the bullet ’ (Page 66)

Questions :
(i) Why did Gangadharpant produce a piece of paper ?
(ii) What influence did the evidence have on Rajendra ?
(iii) How did that evidence come in the pocket of Professor Gaitonde ?
(iv) What is the point of discussion between Gangadharpant and Rajendra ?
(v) Give the synonyms of the following words :
(a) smugly
(b) inadvertently.
Answers :
(i) Gangadhar produced the piece of paper as a part of evidence to prove that Iris mind was not playing tricks and that his imaginaion was not running amok. He really had experienced what he was narrating.
(ii) Rajendra was really moved by the evidence. Earlier, he had been taking it just as the figment of Gangadharpant’s mind. But after seeing the evidence, he turned serious and started reading the page (evidence).
(iii) Gangadharpant had gone to the big library. He read there a Bakhar and while leaving library, he inadvertently slipped it in his pocket. Thus the evidence came in his pocket.
(iv) Gangadharpant and Rajendra had been discussing over the mysterious matter, where Gangadharpant had been for the two days while he was absent from Bombay.
(v) (a) smugly : pleasantly for having achieved something.
(b) inadvertently : just accidently, unintentionally.

Passage 6

“A good guess. I was indeed wondering what course history would have taken if the result of the battle had gone the other way,” Professor Gaitonde said. “That was going to be the topic of my thousandth presidential address.”“Now you are in the happy position of recounting your real life experience rather than just speculating,” Rajehdra laughed. But Gangadharpant was grave. “No, Rajendra, my thousandth address was made on the Azad Maidan when I was so rudely interrupted. No. the Professor Gaitonde who disappeared while defending his chair on the platform will now never be seen presiding at another meeting—‘I have conveyed my regrets to the organisers of the Panipat seminar.’ (Page 69)

Questions :
(i) What was going to be the topic of Professor Gaitondes thousandth Presidential address ? Could he deliver it ?
(ii) Why could he not deliver his thousandth presidential address ?
(iii) What did Gangadharpant resolve as a result ?
(iv) Why did Professor Gaitonde convey his regrets to the organisers of the Panipat Seminar ?
(v) Give the meanings of the following words :
(a) recounting
(b) speculating.
Answers :
(i) The topic of Gangadharpant Gaitonde’s thousandth address was going to be : ‘what course history would have taken if the result of the battle had gone the other way.’
(ii) Professor Gangadharpant Gaitonde could not deliver his thousandth presidential speech as he was rudely interrupted by the public and the speaker there. He was actually pulled down from the stage physically.
(iii) Gangadharpant felt so offended (and shocked) by the rude interruption of the public at Azad Maidan in Pune that he resolved never to be seen presiding at the meeting.
(iv) Professor Gaitonde conveyed his regrets to the organisers of the Panipat seminar,as he had resolved never to attend/ address as President of any of the meeting in future. It was occurred as a result of his bitter experience at Pune meeting.
(v)
(a) recounting : telling something about your personal experience.
(b) speculating : forming an opinion sth that you don’t know in detail.

The Adventure Extra Questions Short Answer type 

Question 1.
Can you guess when actually the incidents of the story might have taken place ?
Answer:
The incidents of the story might have taken place after 1857 during the British Raj only. The narrator talks about East India Company’s rule in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras, whereas in Pune where he lived presently was unaffected.

Question 2.
How did the librarian feel at the presence of Professor Gaitonde and why ?
Answer:
The librarian at the big library in Town Hall felt at the presence of Professor Gaitonde that here was a real researcher and scholar who had the thirst for knowing the facts. He felt so as Professor Gaitonde had been studying the books quite hungrily. He also forgot the count of time and kept on reading till the librarian asked him to stop as it was closing time.

Question 3.
What mistake did Gangadharpant commit at the library ? How did it prove a boon to him ?
Answer:
While leaving the library Gangadharpant showed a page of written notes in his right pocket. Inadvertently, he showed ‘Bakhar’ in his left. Later when Rajendra Deshpande tried to prove his experience a mere figment of mind, he produced both the things proving that his was a ‘real experience’. Thus it proved a boon.

Question 4.
Name the theories with which Rajendra Deshpande tried to associate Gaitonde’s experience at Azad Maidan?
Answer:
Rajendra Deshpande seemed to be a physicist having great interest in history as well. First he tried to associate Gaitonde’s experience at Azad Maidan in Bombay with Catastrophic theory. It clearly meant that it was a mere figment of Gangadharpant’s mind. Then more seriously, he related it with ‘quantum theory’ in which there is always ‘a lack of determinism.’

Question 5.
Could Rajendra be able to make around Gangadharpant by rationalising his experience ?
Answer:
No, Rajendra failed to make around Gangadharpant despite the fact that very deftly he tried to rationalise the latter’s experience. Gangadharpant was not at all satisfied his rational clarification and told that his source experience at Azad Maidan had given him such a rude jolt that he had decided never to address any public meeting.

Question 6.
What was the explanation to Gangadharpant’s query about his two days absence from Pune ?
Answer:
When Gangadharpant asked from Rajendra Deshpande where the former remained for two days while he was absent from Pune, the latter replied that the Professor though lived in present, he experienced the past at the same time or to put it simply he was moving in two different worlds simultaneously.

Question 7.
Rajendra Deshpande also became at one query of the Professor. What was that ?
Answer:
When Gangadharpant asked how it occurred that while living in present world by experienced a past world. To this question Rajendra answered that it occurred due to transition. On being asked why this transition occurred in him, Rajendra could produce no scientific explanations. He rather told that there are several questions of which answers are still to be found put.

Question 8.
The chapter talks about a very crucial war ? What is that ? How was it crucial ?
Answer:
The chapter ‘The Adventure’ talks about a very crucial war. It was fought between Marathas and Moghals. It was crucial as it was war by Marathas and British Raj was still away from this territory. But in the Provinces of Moghuls, British rule paved way quite easily.

Question 9.
The story mentions just two characters mainly, still it doesn’t appear dull. Why/ Why not ?
Answer:
I fully agree that mainly the story talks about just two characters the physicist Rajendra Deshpande and the historian Professor Gangadharpant Gaitonde, with the passing hue of Khan Sahib, English receptionist and audience at the Azad Maidan. Still the story has its own point of interest. It lies in Rajendra Deshpande’s effort to relate Gaitonde’s real experience with different scientific theories.

Question 10.
What was the first jolt that Gangadharpant receive on getting down at Bombay ?
Answer:
Gangadharpant found a new look given to the Bombay station itself. Next as he came out of station, he found totally new sets of shops and buildings which were more akin to the ones in the British Town. The great jolt which he received was at the ‘Forbes Stores’ where he had earlier worked. But now the company had no clue of his name in the list of employees. Gangadhar felt a lost identity in his own native place.

The Adventure Extra Questions Long Answer type 

Question 1.
Justify the title of the story “The Adventure’.
Answer:
The title of the story ‘The Adventure’ is quite apt and appropriate. ‘The Adventure’ simply means ‘an unusual and exciting experience’. Here in the story the protagonist Professor Gangadharpant Gaitonde also goes through a very strange experience. He was a historian. He was going to Bombay (possibly his native place) first time after the establishment of British rule here. Here many shocks awaited him. On the carriages of the train he found the letters ‘GBMR’ and the tiny Union Jack painted. The latter one was a gentle reminder that the British territory had started.

Again the letters ‘East India House Headquarters of the East India Company’ proclaimed its identity to the people like Gangadharpant who didn’t know that Bombay. Though Professor Gaitonde was prepared to receive shocks out this one was too disturbing.

As per history books, the East India Company had been wound up shortly after the events of 1857. So when and how history had taken a different turn. He earlier worked in ‘Forbes Stores’ in Bombay. But as he asked his name at the reception he found that his name didn’t exist in the list of employees there any more. Possibly all Anglo-Indians had been placed there.

The most peculiar incident he had to come across was the meeting at Azar .Iaidan where the presidential chair was unoccupied and people also were not at all willing to get it occupied.Still an enigma to him was that he couldn’t decide where he did spend those two days while he had been away from Pune. His physicist friend tried to rationalise it on the basis of scientific theory, which Gangadhar was ready to receive.

Question 2.
Give a pen-portrayal of Gangadharpant.
Answer:
Professor Gangadharpant Gaitonde is a historian by profession. He is veiy devoted historian. Once, he went Bombay : There he decided to find out where the history took a different turn from what is found in reality. For that he went to the big libraiy at Town Hall. He didn’t bother at all for his lodging and meal. He kept browsing through the history books till the librarian reminded him of closing time of the libraiy.

He is very particular about jotting down the important points from different history books. He was so much absorbed in thinking about the different incidences in history, that unknowingly to be slipped a book/bakhar in his pocket. Later after having a frugal meal, as he went for a stroll, he couldn’t suppress his curiosity seeing a throng of people.He had already addressed 99 meetings in capacity of chairperson. He was so much eager to awaken the public about different historical truths, that he didn’t care for the invitations of the public.

He rather warded off their verbal protests. He even kept on speaking even though they started throwing eggs and tomatoes. People threw him off the stage. It’s only next day that he regained consciousness. He felt hurt at the public-behaviour and resolved never to speak in any public meetings, still his search for truth didn’t stop.

Question  3.
How does Rajendra Deshpande try to rationalise Professor Gaitonde’s experiences at Bombay ?
Answer:
Professor Gangadharpant Gaitonde is a historian and Rajendra Deshpande is a physicist. Professor Gaitonde had been to Bombay for two days to find out how and when the history took a different turn in books and in reality in Bombay. Then he is caught in an unfortunate experience of hostile audience while he was trying to give vent to his views regarding the turn in history.

On return he told everything to Deshpande. He wanted to know from Rajendra what actually happened to him and where he actually spent those two days. Rajendra Deshpande true to his profession tried to give his adventurous experience a scientific base.He first called it a catastrophic experience, citing the catastrophic theory in relation with the Battle of Panipat, where leadership and moral boosting led the Marathas win the battle. Next, he compared his experience with quantum theory.

The lack of determinism in quantum theory leads a man to imagine many world pictures at a time. So catastrophic situation offers radically different alternatives for the world to proceed. But observer really can experience only one of the many worlds. Hence by making transition, Gangadhar experienced two worlds although one at a time. These all ‘theories of Deshpande’ appeared quite fascinating but failed to impress Gangadharpant Gaitonde. He simply remained adamant that he had experienced a hostile audience and hence had resolved never to preside over a public meeting.

Question 4.
“You’ve passed through a fantastic experience.” Who spoke these words ? Explain.
Answer:
Rajendra Deshpande spoke these words. He is a physicist. He also seemed to be a friend of Professor Gaitonde, who is a historian. Professor Gaitonde has recently undergone a very peculiar experience. It was an adventure to him. He had gone to Bombay for the first time, after British rule there.

He met there public with peculiar attitude which he had never witnessed. He also felt that the history had been tempered by someone. It was quite different probably after 1857, to that history which he had witnessed. He wanted to find out when and how their change occurred.

For this purpose he went to the public library also to consult history books. He returned with a vital evidence as well to Pune there he met Rajendra Deshpande his friend. He wanted to get the reason of that hostile public and perhaps the co-reaction between the change in history and the change in public attitude.

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